The under-representation of women in all fields of citizens’ activity is a well-documented fact in many countries. This presentation aims at investigating the representation of women in Cyprus with emphasis on their under-representation in positions of power. Comparisons with the situation in the other countries of the European Union will highlight the barriers women face in their attempt to enter and succeed in decision-making posts. Research-based data attest to the negative stereotypes towards and prejudices against women, the myths that prevent change and the divide between official rhetoric of equality and the policy and measures that should realize it. In this context the role of mass media and education has been investigated and their problematic approach on the issue of gender equality has been scrutinized. The presentation points to the need for the development of dialogue between men and women on the implementation of policy measures that will change the culture of inequality and naturalization of women’s inferiority.