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This is something that has always confused me. I've seen people use the words Roman and Byzantine interchangeably, but I'm pretty sure that the Roman empire was led by the Italians, and the Byzantine empire by the Greeks/Romans. Does anyone see my confusion here? And is someone able to clarify?


The Roman Empire used to be HUGE and it became difficult to manage. It split apart for the eastern Roman Empire (which became the Byzantine Empire) and the Western Roman Empire (which became the portion we associate with Rome and all that). I don't remember all the details but this is gist.
The Byzantine Empire was a continuance of the Roman Empire. Saint Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, transferred the capital city from Rome to Constantinople in 330 AD. Soon the emperors realised that it would be better to establish two poles of power (one in Italy and one that would remain in Constantinople). The western part fell into the hands of the German tribes. The eastern was christianized (as happened, actually, with the western part, as well), but Greek language and culture played a crucial role in transforming its character, due to the fact that Greeks were dominant there. It became the medieval Greek empire. The term "Byzantine" is, in fact, an anachronism, because what we call "Byzantines" continued to call themselves as "Romans". It refers to the ancient Greek colony "Byzantium", which was established by Megara (a town near Athens) and existed before the erection of Constantinople. The term became popular during the Renaissance period and was established by German and French scholars.
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Remembering Metaxas as Oxi Day Approaches

From what I understand, Metaxas was a somewhat controversial figure in Greece. However, he is the one who stood his ground against the Axis Powers when they wanted Greece to allow occupation during World War II without a fight.

I guess at the time, a representative from Italy gave Metaxas an ultimatum from Mussolini. I heard somewhere that what he really said was: “Alors, c’est la guerre.” Which means, then it is war. The Greek people translated it as "Oxi".

In my mind, this is Philotimo. Standing against Italy and the Axis Powers was the right thing to do.

Does anyone know why Metaxas is generally considered controversial? Does it have to do with Oxi day or something else?

Where the name “Greece” comes from

Many people might be surprised to find out that Greek people don’t actually call Greece, “Greece.” They use the word Hellas/Hellada. this is the word for Greece, in the native tongue. Greece comes from the Latin word “Graecia” which was first used by the Romans. It then spread all across the world, which is why many different countries called Greece, Greece instead of Hellada.

How Egypt influenced Ancient Greece

Ancient Egypt and Greece hav had so much influence over each other, perhaps more than any other ancient civilizations. This article specifically focuses on the impact of Egypt on Ancient Greece.
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